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Initial proteomic characterization of IMMODIN, commercially available dialysable leukocytes extract

Fernando Zuniga-Navarrete, Sofia Guadalupe Zavala-Meneses, Vladimir Zelnik, Juraj Kopacek, and Ludovit Skultety

Institute of Virology, Biomedical Research Center of the SAS, Bratislava, Slovak Republic



Received: 26 October 2020  Accepted: 8 December 2020


One of the most significant public health challenges of the twenty-first century is the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases caused by various microorganisms, including resistant bacteria and viruses. With aging, there is a progressive alteration of the immune system and its responses that may result in immune senescence and immunodepression. Nevertheless, immune modulators can speed up recovery. IMMODIN® is a commercially available dialysable leukocyte extract prepared from disintegrated white blood cells of healthy human donors. It is used clinically as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent when cell-mediated immunity plays a key role. This initial proteomic study was aiming to evaluate the polypeptide repertoire present in this immunologic preparation. Using our approach, we identified forty-eight unique proteins associated with blood cells or plasma. From them, twenty-eight were detected in at least two independent analyses of three IMMODIN® preparations. The highest number of proteins was related to innate immunity. There were identified receptors for parasites or microbes that have the ability to recognize the invaders and initiate their inhibition or elimination. We also detected proteins associated with inflammatory response, including those having the potential to inhibit cytokines and treat the cytokine storm. There were found even proteins that can speed up recovery by regulating cell growth and repair.

Keywords: Dialysable leukocyte extract; Transfer factor; Immunomodulator; Protein identification; Functional prediction

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-020-01467-w


Chemical Papers 75 (5) 1959–1968 (2021)

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