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Interfacial and spectroscopic behavior of phenothiazine drug/bile salt mixture in urea solution

Dileep Kumar, Naved Azum, Malik Abdul Rub, and Abdullah M. Asiri

Division of Computational Physics, Institute for Computational Science, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam



Received: 18 October 2020  Accepted: 29 March 2021


Bile salts are bio-surfactant molecules, anionic in nature, and show an energetic character in cholesterol and lipid solubilization. These amphiphiles are also used as a drug carrier. Being anionic they can interact strongly with other cationic amphiphiles. Keeping in mind this fact, we have investigated the interfacial and spectroscopic performance of cationic phenothiazine drug with bile salt in the nonattendance and attendance 250 mM urea. Surface tension and absorbance (UV-visible spectroscopy) experiments have been performed to elucidate the nature of interactions. The composition and interaction parameters at the interface or surface were computed by using the Rosen theory of mixed monolayer. The other surface parameters were computed by adopting Gibbs adsorption isotherm. Benesi-Hildebrand (B–H) model was utilized to evaluate the binding constant.

Keywords: Phenothiazine drug; Sodium cholate; Urea; Mixed micellization; Surface parameters; UV-visible spectroscopy

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-01634-7


Chemical Papers 75 (8) 3949–3956 (2021)

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