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Restoring chemo-sensitivity to temozolomide via targeted inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by naringin in glioblastoma

Vanishree Rao, Sri Pragnya Cheruku, Suman Manandhar, R. J. A. Vibhavari, Krishnadas Nandakumar, C. Mallikarjuna Rao, V. Ravichandiran, and Nitesh Kumar

Department of Pharmacology, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India



Received: 11 March 2021  Accepted: 12 May 2021


Inclining mortality with a constant plummet in the survival rates associated with glioblastoma still stands as an inveterate predicament. The only promising therapy with temozolomide (TMZ) is now side-lined due to escalated resistance mediated by Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase-1 (PARP-1). In the light of this, the very study was designed to evaluate the potential of an active phyto component named naringin, in inhibiting PARP-1, using in silico and in vitro methods. Under in silico settings, inhibitor bound crystal structure of PARP-1, i.e., 4UND was retrieved and molecular docking studies were performed against naringin using Schrodinger software. In vitro cytotoxicity and apoptotic detection assay were performed using C6 glioma cells. Docking studies revealed high affinity and low binding energy at the inhibition site with good stability. An increase in cytotoxicity to C6 cells was observed with TMZ and naringin combination when compared to TMZ alone. Isobologram plot confirmed the synergistic effect of the drug combination. A significant increase in the number of apoptotic cells with combination drugs, as evaluated by acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining reassured the reversal of resistance. In conclusion, chemosensitivity to TMZ was restored by successful inhibition of PARP-1 using naringin and the drug combination was hence proven effective in reversing TMZ resistance.

Keywords: Glioblastoma; Temozolomide; Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1; Naringin; Chemoresistance

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-01700-0


Chemical Papers 75 (9) 4861–4871 (2021)

Tuesday, June 18, 2024

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