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A comparative review on detection of Cocaine using hyphenated techniques

Srinidhi Krishnamurthy and Rashmi Kadu

Department of Forensic Science, JAIN (Deemed-to-be University), Bengaluru, India



Received: 14 August 2021  Accepted: 23 December 2021


Narcotic drugs have analgesic properties due to which they are commonly consumed to relieve pain from the body. The mode of action of these drugs is to depress the central nervous system. Long-term consumption of narcotic drugs can lead to physical dependency and drug abuse complications. In India, abuse of prohibited narcotic drugs such as cocaine, opium and cannabis by the young generation is to the great extent and the drug-facilitated crimes are also increasing day by day. In such scenarios, detection and identification of these drugs become an integral part of forensic investigation. Among the various analytical techniques, chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques have been predominantly used for the detection of narcotic drugs. In this review, research articles on chromatography and mass spectrometry techniques used for the detection of cocaine, published between 2015 and 2021, have been collected. The methods of sample collection, preparation, and extraction, and the data such as the analytical parameters, sample matrix, mode of analysis, and the manufacturing company employed in each research have been accumulated. The range of LOD, LOQ, retention time, and mass-to-charge ratio has been analyzed. This review will serve as a collective report of chromatography and mass spectrometric techniques used in the past six years for the detection of cocaine. It will also help the scientific officers to analyze and choose a finer analytical technique with respect to the matrix and sample volume available for the analysis. The results of the review indicate that hyphenated techniques of chromatography and mass spectrometry serve as an ideal technique for cocaine detection.

Keywords: Narcotic drugs; Chromatography and mass spectrometry; Cocaine; Hyphenated techniques

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-021-02039-2


Chemical Papers 76 (4) 1939–1951 (2022)

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