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Micelle mediated selective extraction of lead after its complexation with thionine in aqueous samples prior to FAAS determination

Gizem Kahve Yıldırım and Yavuz Sürme

Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Niğde Ömer Halisdemir University, Niğde, Turkey



Received: 9 July 2021  Accepted: 16 January 2022


A micelle mediated phase separation and preconcentration process of trace level Pb (II) ions in water samples, after chelating with thionine for determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was developed. The preconcentration step was based on the cloud point extraction of lead-thionine chelates with the non-ionic surfactant Tergitol NP-7 (TNP-7). Pb (II) ions were selectively reacted with thionine at pH 6 forming stable hydrophobic metal-chelates. The selectivity of the method proved in the presence of five different possible chelatable metal ions with thionine ligand. The parameters of the method were optimized for solution pH, surfactant concentration, ligand concentration, reaction temperature, incubation time and matrix ions. The reliability of the method was tested by relative standard deviation (RSD %), which was found to be less than 5%. The LOD and LOQ values were found as 1.5 and 5 μg L−1 and the preconcentration factor was 25. The performance of the process was tested by standard reference material and analyte addition into the real samples.

Keywords: Micellar mediated extraction; Lead; Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy; Preconcentration; Selective ligand

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02086-3


Chemical Papers 76 (5) 3147–3154 (2022)

Monday, June 17, 2024

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