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Development of a fluoremetric probe based on molecularly imprinted polymers for determination of phenobarbital in exhaled breath condensate

Pouya Nasehi Nejhad, Abolghasem Jouyban, Maryam Khoubnasabjafari, Vahid Jouyban-Gharamaleki, Mohamadbahger Hosseini, and Elaheh Rahimpour

Faculty of Pharmacy, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran



Received: 25 October 2021  Accepted: 25 January 2022


In the current study, a fluorometric probe based on molecularly imprinted polymers @ N-doped carbon dots (MIP@N-CDs) is reported for phenobarbital analysis in the exhaled breath condensate collected from the expiratory circuit of the mechanical ventilator (MVEBC). The detection mechanism is based on a charge transfer between N-CDs and phenobarbital that is selectively adsorbed on the active site of MIP. As the decrease in emission intensity is proportional to phenobarbital concentration, a method is proposed for its determination. This method has a linear relationship with phenobarbital concentration in the range of 0.01–8.0 mg L−1 with the relative standard deviation of < 2.0%. The current method is employed for the quantification of phenobarbital in MVEBC of the pre-term newborn babies receiving phenobarbital under a mechanical ventilator.

Keywords: Molecularly imprinted polymers; Phenobarbital; Nanosensor; Exhaled breath condensate

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02105-3


Chemical Papers 76 (6) 3447–3457 (2022)

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