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Annealing temperature influences the cytocompatibility, bactericidal and bioactive properties of green synthesised TiO2 nanocomposites

G. Ambarasan Govindasamy, Rabiatul Basria S. M. N. Mydin, Nor Hazliana Harun, Wan Nuramiera Faznie Wan Eddis Effendy, and Srimala Sreekantan

Department of Biomedical Science, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Kepala Batas, Malaysia



Received: 10 February 2022  Accepted: 14 April 2022


Annealing is a crucial functional parameter relevant to the green synthesis and bactericidal properties of TiO2 nanocomposites (TiO2-NPs). In this work, the effect of the annealing temperature on the physicochemical, bactericidal and cytocompatibility properties of TiO2-NPs obtained from Calotropis gigantea was comprehensively studied. Results indicated that amorphous-phase TiO2-NPs were transformed into the anatase phase at 500 °C with a crystallite size of 40.9 nm and MIC of 100 mg/mL towards Staphylococcus aureus. Whereas TiO2-NPs annealed at 400 °C demonstrated no bacterial reduction, TiO2-NPs annealed at 500 °C showed a moderate zone of inhibition towards Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Findings from this study found that TiO2-500C nanocomposites concentration at 100 mg/mL does not inhibit fibroblast cells proliferation activity after 24 h treatment. The plant-mediated nano-sized cubic and spherical anatase TiO2-NPs encapsulated bioactive green elements, such as carbon, sodium, magnesium, chlorine, potassium, calcium and sulphur, from the C. gigantea extract, ultimately leading to versatile and eco-friendly bactericidal agents with wound-healing properties. Further studies involving in vivo are needed to support this work.

Keywords: Calotropis gigantea; Bactericidal agent; Annealing temperature; Titanium dioxide nanoparticles; Cytocompatibility; Green synthesised nanoparticles

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02230-z


Chemical Papers 76 (9) 5369–5388 (2022)

Wednesday, June 19, 2024

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