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Preparation, optimization, and testing of biostimulant formulations as stress management tools and foliar applications on brinjal and onion for growth and yield

Subhajit Ruidas, Snehashis Karmakar, Aloke Purkait, Arka Gangopadhyay, Rounak Saha, Kanad Mukherjee, Prithusayak Mondal, and Dipak Kumar Hazra

Department of Agricultural Chemicals, Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya, Kalyani, Nadia, India



Received: 1 April 2022  Accepted: 1 June 2022


Not only would the application of biostimulant formulations boost vegetable yields under typical and different biotic stress circumstances, but it will also be user and ecologically friendly. Due to their hydrophobic character and huge molecular volumes, the production of highly stable (~ 2 years shelf-life) emulsifiable concentrate (EC) formulations is the bottleneck of plant growth regulator uses. Gibberellic acid (0.25% EC) and Brassinolide (0.15% EC) were developed using a variety of solvents [solvent naphtha (C9), toluene, dimethyl sulfoxide] and surfactants (calcium alkylbenzene sulfonate, nonylphenol ethoxylate-13). Emulsification (spontaneous), detergency, and quick wetting performance were all outstanding in laboratory adjusted phytohormone formulations (E). Highly stable oil in water emulsions with exceptional compatibility (without phase separation) and outstanding emulsion stability (24 h) have been created using secondary alcohol ethoxylates and sulfonate anionic (5:5), which are affected by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value (12.52) and type of nonionic and anionic surfactants. The hormone content fluctuation was also estimated to be appropriate using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) (5.0%). Single and double dosed applications of 450 and 900 mL ha−1 in brinjal (muktakeshi) and 180 and 360 mL ha−1 in onion (sukhsagar) have significantly improved growth and yields above control (untrated) plants. Gibberellic acid boosted brinjal yields by 37.5%, while Brassinolide raised onion yields by 33.9%. Plant growth regulator formulations that have been thoroughly developed and evaluated might be a big step toward environmentally friendly agricultural production.

Keywords: Phytohormones; Abiotic stress; Emulsifiable concentrate; Accelerated storage stability; Leaf area index; Absolute growth rates

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02318-6


Chemical Papers 76 (10) 6141–6152 (2022)

Monday, May 20, 2024

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