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Combine effect of graphene oxide, pure-bore and sodium alginate on rheological and filtration properties and cutting carrying capacity of water-based drilling fluid

Shaine Mohammadali Lalji, Syed Imran Ali, Huzaifa Sohail, Abdur Rahman Misbah, Khadija Azam, and Nimra Navaid

Department of Petroleum Engineering, NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan



Received: 19 April 2022  Accepted: 8 June 2022


For a successful drilling operation, rheological and filtration properties are the most essential parameters to monitor. Rheological properties in desire operating range help the drilling fluid system to suspend and carry the cutting up to the surface. On the other hand, prevention of the filtrate volume loss is crucial particularly in formations that are hydrophilic in nature and has tendency to swell. The main purpose of this study is to investigate experimentally, the combine influence of graphene oxide (GO), pure-bore (PB) and sodium alginate on rheological and filtration properties of water-based drilling fluid (WBDF). A total of eight samples were prepared excluding the based mud system. Particles of GO and PB were divided into two concentrations of 0.35 g and 1.75 g, while for sodium alginate 0.25 g and 2.25 g concentration was used. Laboratory measurements on viscometer for rheological properties, and API filter press for filtration loss were conducted. The results obtained reveal that all the samples demonstrated shear thinning behavior. This behavior was also validated by the dynamic viscosity results, where decrease in viscosity was observed with increase in shear rate. Out of all the samples, Sample 5 shows maximum dynamic viscosity as this sample comprises of maximum concentration of the particles. Rheological properties particularly yield point and apparent viscosity for Samples 1 and 5 were not in the desired operating range. Both of these samples comprise of maximum weight percent of pure-bore and sodium alginate. In addition, Samples 2, 4 and 6 demonstrate a weaker mud system with normalized cutting carrying index values below 1. Sample 6 comprises of smaller concentrations of all the three particles while Samples 2 and 4 consist of maximum concentration of graphene oxide, which results in agglomeration of this particle and decreases the efficacy of these mud systems. The result indicates that for a successful drilling fluid system, the concentration of these particles should be the prime concern. Failure to do so will result in degradation in the performance of the fluid system.

Keywords: Rheological properties; Filtration properties; Graphene oxide; Pure-bore; Sodium Alginate

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02337-3


Chemical Papers 76 (10) 6461–6473 (2022)

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