ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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Cuttlefish bone powder as an efficient solid-phase extraction sorbent of anti-SARS-CoV-2 drugs in environmental water

Ines Tlili, Rafika Bensghaier, Latifa Latrous El Atrache, and Adel Megriche

Laboratoire de Chimie Minérale Appliquée (LR19ES02), Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université de Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisie



Received: 1 April 2022  Accepted: 19 July 2022


Many antiviral drugs were developed to counteract coronavirus disease, 2019 (COVID-19) with severe acute respiratory syndrome. Therefore, the scientific community's efforts have focused on the detection and quantification of antiviral compounds currently being tested for COVID-19 treatment. Cuttlefish bone powder (CFBP) has been used for the first time as solid-phase extraction (SPE) sorbent for the extraction of SARS CoV-2 antiviral drugs (chloroquine, ritonavir and indomethacin) from water samples. An effective and sensitive method was developed by combining SPE and liquid chromatography- UV detection (LC-UV). An experimental design was applied for the optimization of extraction process. Experimental variables were optimized using Doehlert matrix. The developed method included 50 mg of CFBP sorbent, 20 mL of water sample at pH = 9 and 5 mL of ACN/KH2PO4 buffer solution (80:20, v/v) in the elution step. For validation of the method, selectivity, linearity precision, and sensitivity were evaluated. Extraction recovery percentage of all Sars cov-2 antivirals were above 98.2%. The detection and quantification limits were between 0.1 and 0.5 µg L−1 and 0.6 and 2 µg L−1, respectively. The current study suggested that CFBP has the application potential for the enhanced SPE of SARS CoV-2 antiviral drugs from water samples.

Keywords: Green materials; Cuttlefish bone powder; SARS CoV-2 antiviral drugs; Solid-phase extraction; HPLC–UV and chemometrics

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02388-6


Chemical Papers 76 (11) 6941–6951 (2022)

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