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Synthesis and evaluation of ZnAl2O4 and Mn, Dy doped ZnAl2O4 powders by sol–gel and ball milling method

Purushotham Endla

Department of Physics, School of Sciences, SR University, Warangal, India



Received: 2 April 2022  Accepted: 3 August 2022


The ZnAlO and Mn (Manganese), Dy (Dysprosium) doped ZnAlO compounds i.e., ZnAlOMn and ZnAlODy compound powder synthesized by Sol–Gel Technique (SGT). Lattice Strain (LS) produced by Ball Milling Technique (BMT), by repeating grinding/milling produces LS and it has decreased Particle Size (PS). Debye temperature (DT) is represented by θM, Debye–Waller Factor (DWF) is represented by B and Amplitude of Vibrations (AV) is represented by < u2 > . The values of LS, PS, DT, DWF and AV of ZnAlO, Mn-doped ZnAlO, Dy doped ZnAlO compounds were calculated by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) method. The powder samples were equipped/prepared with Zinc acetate (ZnC6H6O4), aluminum acetate (C6H9AlO6), Manganese acetate (C4H6MnO4), dysprosium acetate (C6H12DyO6) respectively. 1 M of ZnC4H6O4, 1 M of C6H9AlO6 was added/dissolved in 2 methoxy ethanol (C3H8O2). Acidic acid (CH3COOH) and Ethylene glycol (C2H6O2) were added 1:1 ratio to the ancestor/precursor solution. Ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) added to the consequential solution to adjust the PH value. The solution determination keep under constant stirring at 80 °C temperature using magnetic stirrer and dried at 80 °C temperature. Final sol–gel resultant product was annealed at 900 °C for 2 h. The Mn and Dy were also doped with ZnAl2O4 and synthesized in the above-mentioned same procedure have been used. The SGT Resultant powder has been milling 2, 4 h using the ball mill. The XRD patterns were recorded for ZnAlO, ZnAlOMn and ZnAlODy powders and also BMT resultant powders. The DT, DWF and AV were obtained from integrated intensities of X-rays. The LS and PS have been calculated by using Williamson-Hall Technique (WHT). In this work, Vacancy Formation Energy (VFE) has been also evaluated.

Keywords: XRD; Strain; Particle size; Debye–Waller factor; Vacancy formation energy

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02409-4


Chemical Papers 76 (12) 7327–7331 (2022)

Tuesday, February 20, 2024

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