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Preparation of molecularly imprinted polymer coatings based on via a sandwich method for solid-phase microextraction of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid from milk

Pengli Jian, Ayzukram Yasen, Turghun Muhammad, Wenwu Yang, and Beibei Wu

State Key Laboratory of Chemistry and Utilization of Carbon Based Energy Resources, College of Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Ürümqi, People’s Republic of China



Received: 30 March 2022  Accepted: 4 September 2022


This study proposes new molecularly imprinted solid-phase microextraction (MIP-SPME) coatings based on a sandwich method for the extraction of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from milk samples. MIP-SPME coatings were prepared by sandwich surface polymerization, using 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as the template, 4-vinylpyridine as the functional monomer and PTFE membrane as supporting material. MIP-SPME coatings were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, Brunner Emmet Teller measurements and adsorption experiments. The adsorption capacities of nonimprinted polymer solid-phase microextraction and MIP-SPME coatings were 41.8 mg/g and 31.8 mg/g, respectively. Regeneration adsorption was achieved in 137 runs (relative standard deviation, RSD ≤ 6.35%) with an indication of high stability and reusability. The parameters, such as loading solvent, time and washing and elution solvents were optimized and found to be methanol–water (1/9, v/v), 1 h, water and acetonitrile–methanol (1/9, v/v), respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the developed SPME method was successfully applied for the selective extraction and determination of 2,4-D in milk samples coupled with HPLC, with a recovery of 88.8–96.6% (RSD ≤ 5.1%). The limits of determination and the limits of quantitation were found to be 0.03 and 0.1 mg L−1, respectively.

Keywords: 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; Molecularly imprinted polymer; Sandwich polymer coatings; Milk; Solid-phase microextraction

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02471-y


Chemical Papers 77 (1) 219–228 (2023)

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