ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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In-vitro biocompatibility evaluation of cast Ni–Ti alloy produced by vacuum arc melting technique for biomedical and dental applications

Khaled M. Ibrahim, Engie M. Safwat, Ibrahim M. Ghayad, and Shimaa El-Hadad

Central Metallurgical Research & Development Institute, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt



Received: 21 June 2022  Accepted: 28 September 2022


The investigated cast Ni50–Ti50 shape memory alloy was prepared using a vacuum arc furnace. The cast samples were subjected to in-vitro biocompatibility studies according to ISO 10993-12:2004, and compared to other samples Ni–Ti orthodontic wires commercially available at the dental market. The cast samples were hydroxyapatite-coated using the electrodeposition technique. The effect of surface treatment on the coating quality was addressed. The hydroxyapatite-coated samples were investigated using electrochemical impedance (EIS) and potentiodynamic techniques. Coated samples were also examined using a scanning electron microscope to inspect the coating morphology. Cytotoxicity tests on MG63 and H9C2 cell lines showed the safety and biocompatibility of the cast NiTi alloy, with a direct relationship between the incubation period of the tested samples and cell viability. Well-adhered hydroxyapatite coating was obtained on the surface-treated NiTi samples using the electrodeposition technique. EDS analysis showed a hydroxyapatite coating having a calcium to phosphorus ratio close to that of the natural bone. Electrochemical tests indicated that the highest corrosion resistance was obtained for the uncoated samples followed by the anodized sample and finally the hydroxyapatite-coated samples due to their high porosity.

Keywords: Nitinol; Biocompatibility; Cytotoxicity; Ion release; Orthodontics

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-022-02523-3


Chemical Papers 77 (2) 847–858 (2023)

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