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FDM-based 3D printing of PLA/PHA composite polymers

Berivan Cecen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, USA



Received: 30 October 2022  Accepted: 12 March 2023


Design and replication methods for polylactide (PLA)/polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) scaffolds with a specific porosity using the 3D printing-fused deposition modeling technique. This work examined the mechanical properties of triple periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS)-based lattices. It explores applications and research opportunities for TPMS-based lattices and composites. Specifically, the effects of changing the Schwarz-D, Kelvin lattices, and Gyroid’s elastic modulus and materials properties were examined. Manufacturing artificial tissue or bone regeneration scaffolds from PLA/PHA in filaments or powder is a perfect application for both biomaterials. The most researched composites for medical applications are porous tissue engineering scaffolds with enhanced surface roughness, improved mechanical features and biocompatibility. PLA/PHA scaffolds are utilized for bone fixation and have higher mechanical performance. It is now possible to achieve enhanced pore size controls via 3D printing technologies, which also allow for creating complex architectural scaffolds and applying biofunctions to simulate genuine tissue.

Keywords: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); 3D bioprinting; Schwarz-D; Kelvin lattices; Gyroid; Elastic modulus (E*)

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02786-4


Chemical Papers 77 (8) 4379–4386 (2023)

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