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Feasibility study of the environmental and economic impact of phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil

Amal H. Al-Bagawi

Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Ha’il, Ha’il, Saudi Arabia



Received: 30 March 2023  Accepted: 21 May 2023


The city of Ha’il in Saudi Arabia is recognized as an industrial zone characterized by the presence of numerous heavy metals in its soil. The present study primarily investigated the potential of Jatropha curcas fruit phytoremediation, bentonite, and their combination to mitigate heavy metal contamination in soil. Different soil samples were taken from various locations and displayed at three venues: a general abattoir, a spinning and wool factory, and a slaughterhouse. The soil samples were digested according to ISO-14869-1 and detected using ICP-OES spectrometers. The study revealed notable variations in the levels of Fe, Cu, and Pb in the soil across the study sites. The soil elements Fe, Cu, and Pb were significant differences between study sites in which the factory of iron, steel, and aluminum site had the highest concentration of these elements. J. curcas fruit and/or bentonite phytoremediation was applied to the digested soil. The findings indicate that the combination of J. curcas fruit and bentonite exhibited the most significant reduction in heavy metal content compared to J. curcas fruit alone. The difference was insignificant, and phytoremediation is recommended on a large scale contaminated with heavy metals.

Keywords: Heavy metals removal; Ha; Il Soil; Phytoremediation; Jatropha curcas fruit; Bentonite clay

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02884-3


Chemical Papers 77 (9) 5541–5553 (2023)

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