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Sol–gel preparation of spinel ferrites/polyaniline composites for electromagnetic interface shielding

Muhammad Zeshan, Muhammad Suleman Waheed, Saad Ahmad Ishaq, Abubakar Siddique, Atta Ullah, El-Sayed M. Sherif, Mohd Zahid Ansari, Sajjad Ahmad Khan, Abdul Rauf Khan, and Hafiz Muhammad Tahir Farid

Centre of Excellence in Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan



Received: 3 April 2023  Accepted: 14 June 2023


In this study, we examined the properties of conductive polymers and related composites that are typically used for EMI shielding owing of their magnetic and microwave properties. Ferrite/polymer (PANI) composites, which have magnetic properties, are a promising area of research for multifunctional materials. Specifically, we compared and contrasted the properties of PANI, gadolinium-substituted spinel ferrite, and their composites. In this research, we employed the sol–gel method to synthesize polyaniline and spinel ferrites. The nanocomposites were formed by combining the polyaniline and spinel ferrites. Various properties of these nanocomposites were analyzed using multiple characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Direct current electrical resistivity and microwave. The X-ray diffraction pattern indicated the presence of a pure crystalline ferrite phase, with an average size of the crystallite approximately 40 nm. The ferromagnetic properties of the nanocomposites were demonstrated through the M-H loops. The microwave properties of materials, namely their capacity to reflect or deflect electromagnetic radiation in the appropriate frequency range, impact the effectiveness of EMI shielding for microwave applications.

Keywords: Magnetic susceptibility; Microwave; EMI shielding; Activation energy; Polyaniline

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02956-4


Chemical Papers 77 (11) 6533–6542 (2023)

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