ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
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Formulation and performance of aqueous film-forming foam fire extinguishing agent composed of a short-chain perfluorinated heterocyclic surfactant as the key component

Wen-Hai Wu, Ji-Li Wang, Ya-Qing Zhou, Yong Sun, Jiang Duan, and Aidong Zhang

College of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Hanjiang Normal University, Shiyan, China



Received: 6 April 2023  Accepted: 12 July 2023


As the essential component(s), long-chain perfluorinated or short-chain perfluorinated ionic surfactants are required for effective aqueous film-forming foam (AFFF); nevertheless, the associated qualities of persistent pollution and toxicity have raised significant concerns. It has become critical to develop alternatives to the present fluorine component for AFFF to offset the negative effects. In this study, a short-chain perfluorinated nitrogen-heterocyclic nonionic amine oxide surfactant was combined with hydrocarbon surfactants and additives to prepare an AFFF concentrate. A laboratory technique was developed to evaluate the influence of ingredients on the performance of a 6% AFFF diluent, resulting in an improved AFFF formulation. The performance parameters for pool fire extinguishment and fire resistance of the AFFF formulation were encouraging, including a spreading coefficient of 5.4, foam expansion of 8.11, 25% drainage time of 4.6 min, extinguishing times for forceful application of 58 s, and fire burnback time of 18.6 min. In addition, the AFFF concentrate showed significant freezing resistance when stored at − 20 °C for an extended period of time. The formulation outperformed the technical standard criteria and has the potential to be used as a novel AFFF agent.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Aqueous film-forming foam; Formulation; Short-chain perfluorinated surfactant; Extinguishing time; Burnback time

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02975-1


Chemical Papers 77 (11) 6763–6771 (2023)

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