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Experimental and statistical analysis of MWCNT hybrid nanofluid-based multi-functional drilling fluid

Manjakuppam Malika, Aaditi Pargaonkar, and Shriram S. Sonawane

Department of Chemical Engineering, B V Raju Institute of Technology, Narsapur, India



Received: 4 October 2022  Accepted: 13 July 2023


The current study developed a novel MWCNT-Fe2O3/water-based drilling fluid. Hybrid nanofluids are a new type of nanofluids that are produced by dispersing multiple nanoparticles in a base fluid. Because MWCNTs have a higher thermal conductivity than Fe2O3 at room temperature, the current study used both nanoparticles in a mixing ratio of 80 and 20 (vol %). To ensure proper dispersion of MWCNT in water, sodium oleate is used as a surfactant. After mixing the nanofluids into the bentonite-based drilling fluid, its thermophysical properties are experimentally studied and statistically validated using RSM. DLS, zetapotential, and sedimentation studies all confirm that the ultrasonic cavitation technique (100% intensity–30 min) maintains drilling fluid’s stability. The results showed that the addition of nanofluids significantly increased the thermal conductivity of the drilling fluid. The thermal conductivity enhancement was approximately 414% for 0.5 vol% hybrid nanofluid-based drilling fluid. RSM studies optimized the input parameters A, B, and C–0.5 vol%, 60 °C, and 30 min, respectively, to increase drilling fluid thermal conductivity from 0.7 to 3.91 W/mK. The ANOVA statistical analysis confirmed that nanofluid concentration and temperature had a significant effect on drilling fluids thermal conductivity. Finally, the significant improvement in thermal conductivity demonstrates the effectiveness of nanofluid addition in the drilling fluid’s performance.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Multiwalled nanotubes (MWCNTs); Water-based drilling fluid; Hybrid nanofluid; RSM; Bentonite clay

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-02976-0


Chemical Papers 77 (11) 6773–6784 (2023)

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