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Titanium oxide decorated zinc oxide nanoparticles for dye-sensitized solar cell and heterojunction diode applications

P. Arul, B. Balraj, C. Siva, and C. Vivek

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kongunadu College of Engineering and Technology, Tiruchirappalli, India



Received: 9 June 2023  Accepted: 11 August 2023


In this study, the performance of dye-sensitized photovoltaic cells and electron charge recombination properties of p-n heterojunction diodes were enhanced by incorporating TiO2 into pristine ZnO nanoparticles. The ZnO nanomaterials were prepared using a green mediated technique, and the TiO2 deposition over ZnO nanoparticles was achieved through the sol–gel method. Structural analysis confirmed that the ZnO nanoparticles exhibited a hexagonal wurtzite structure, while the TiO2 nanoparticles displayed a hexagonal structure. Morphological analysis revealed that the ZnO particles had a spherical shape, whereas TiO2 particles formed clusters. The nanomaterials were further investigated to assess their functional, linear optical, and magnetic properties. For the p-n heterojunction analysis, n-type pure ZnO and ZnO/TiO2 nanomaterials were coated onto a p-type silicon substrate. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of TiO2 nanomaterials improved the coercivity and magnetization of the device. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells significantly increased for the ZnO/TiO2 photoanode, indicating a reduced charge recombination. The TiO2 incorporated ZnO exhibited a higher efficiency (7.85%) compared to pristine ZnO (7.47%).

Keywords: Heterojunction diode; ZnO nanomaterials; Metal oxide; VSM, DSSCs

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03036-3


Chemical Papers 77 (12) 7527–7537 (2023)

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