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Synthesis of nano-CaO from clamshell (Geloina sp.) using papaya latex as biocatalyst

Anwar Ma’ruf, Chusnul Khotimah, and Ngafwan Ngafwan

Chemical Engineering Department, Universitas Muhammadiyah Purwokerto, Purwokerto, Indonesia



Received: 1 June 2023  Accepted: 5 September 2023


Nano-CaO can be used in various fields such as energy, health, and medicine. Clamshell (Geloina sp.) has a large enough CaCO3 content, so it has the potential as a material for making nano-CaO. The synthesis of nano-CaO from shells can be done by the top-down method using high-energy milling. One of the problems with the top-down method is the high energy requirement. The utilization of papaya latex is an effort to reduce energy requirements during the milling process. This study aims to examine the use of papaya latex as a bio-activator in the synthesis of nano-CaO from clamshell (Geloina sp.). Several aspects studied include the yield of nano-CaO obtained and the characteristics of nano-CaO. The results show the optimum conditions for the incubation process with papaya latex were at a temperature of 60 °C, the papaya latex concentration of 5%, and the time of 3 h. The content of Ca, C, and O in nano-CaO is 45.04, 35.07, and 18.36%, respectively. Nano-CaO has a very active group and has antibacterial activity. Therefore, nano-CaO from clamshell (Geloina sp.) can be used in any industrial field.

Keywords: Nano-CaO; Clamshell; Papaya latex; Biocatalyst

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03068-9


Chemical Papers 77 (12) 7969–7975 (2023)

Tuesday, May 21, 2024

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