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Exploration of phase separation and several physicochemical parameters of the mixture of triton X-100 and ceftriaxone sodium salt: influences of the composition of sodium salts

Md. Rafiul Islam Rony, Javed Masood Khan, Md. Rafikul Islam, K. M. Khairul Alam, Dileep Kumar, Anis Ahmad, Shahed Rana, and Md. Anamul Hoque

Department of Chemistry, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh



Received: 4 July 2023  Accepted: 12 September 2023


Herein, the phase partitioning of triton X-100 (TX-100) and ceftriaxone sodium trihydrate (CTS) drug mixture in aqueous solutions of sodium salts was thoroughly investigated. The sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), sodium oxalate (Na2C2O4), and sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) were used to explore the effect of sodium salts on the cloudy creation of the mixture of TX-100 and applied drug. The CTS is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic drug that is extensively utilized to cure bacterial diseases. The CP values of employed system were attained to be lessened by increasing the concentration of sodium salts (Na salts) and followed the pattern: \({\text{CP}}_{{{\text{aq}}.{\text{ NaNO}}_{3} }} > {\text{CP}}_{{{\text{aq}}.{\text{ Na}}_{3} {\text{PO}}_{4} }} > {\text{CP}}_{{{\text{aq}}.{\text{ Na}}_{2} {\text{CO}}_{3} }} > {\text{CP}}_{{{\text{aq}}.{\text{ Na}}_{2} {\text{C}}_{2} {\text{O}}_{4} }} .\) The estimated several thermodynamic entities (\(\Delta G_{c}^{0}\), \(\Delta H_{c}^{0}\), and \(\Delta S_{c}^{0}\)) change of phase partitioning of TX-100 + CTS drug is the measurement of interactions that exist between TX-100 and CTS in aquatic Na-salts environments. The calculated (\(\Delta G_{c}^{0}\)) values were positive in the studied inspections, which demonstrated the nonspontaneous process of phase partitioning for the investigating system in aq. Na-salts media. The enthalpy–entropy compensation variables associated with the clouding process of TX-100 + CTS mixture in H2O + salts media were also calculated and interpreted in a detailed way. The operating forces between TX-100 and CTS are electrostatic and hydrophobic, which is evident from the values of \(\Delta H_{c}^{0}\) and \(\Delta S_{c}^{0}\).

Keywords: Triton X-100; Drug research; Cloud point; Micelles; Salt effect; Thermodynamics; Enthalpy–entropy compensation parameters

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03085-8


Chemical Papers 78 (1) 307–319 (2024)

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