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Exploring optoelectronic synergy for sustainable energy and cleaner environments: utilizing ZrS3:MnS2:Ni9S8 thin film for dual-function supercapacitors and photocatalytic degradation

Mahwash Mahar Gul, Khuram Shahzad Ahmad, Andrew Guy Thomas, Laila Almanqur, Suliman A. Alderhami, and Yasser T. Alharbi

Materials and Environmental Chemistry Lab, Lab E-21, Department of Environmental Science, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan



Received: 9 July 2023  Accepted: 19 September 2023


This research endeavors to comprehensively expound upon the effective production and analysis of thin films composed of ZrS3:MnS2:Ni9S8 ternary metal sulfides, achieved through the implementation of diethyl dithiocarbamate as a sulfur source via the process of physical vapor deposition. Through the utilization of X-ray diffraction analysis, the discerned crystallite size of the thin films was determined to be 27 nm. Insights into the optical characteristics manifested a bandgap energy measuring 2.6 eV. Zr 3d, S 2p, Ni 2p, and Mn 2p core levels were found in the material through the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrochemical features of the substance were analyzed through cyclic voltammetry, displaying noteworthy specific capacitance of 532 Fg−1. Furthermore, the thin film revealed commendable cycle stability, thus establishing them as a highly promising contender for various energy storage applications. An in-depth investigation was conducted to explore the photocatalytic prowess of the material, specifically its ability to effectively degrade a diverse range of environmental pollutants. The results exhibited good degradation rate constants 1.43 × 10–2, 2.25 × 10–2, and 2.42 × 10–2 min−1, for crystal violet dye, pesticide, and phenol, respectively, with the highest degradation for phenol being 76.5%. These findings serve as compelling evidence of the extensive technological prospects offered by ternary metal sulfide thin films, extending beyond their role in energy storage to encompass advanced applications such as photodegradation and beyond.

Keywords: Supercapacitor; Energy storage; Photocatalyst; Thin film; Metal sulfide

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03107-5


Chemical Papers 78 (1) 519–532 (2024)

Tuesday, June 25, 2024

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