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Green synthesis of potassium-infused nitrogenous nano-fertilizer for enhanced plant growth

Ardra Sebastian, P. S. Devika, Praseetha P. Nair, and V. S. Devadas

Government Engineering College, Thrissur, India



Received: 26 June 2023  Accepted: 19 October 2023


Nano-fertilizers have emerged as a promising solution for enhancing crop production. This study focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and application of a potassium-incorporated nitrogenous nano-fertilizer. Macronutrients, namely nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, are crucial for optimal crop growth. The novelty lies in the eco-friendly synthesis approach that harnesses both physical and chemical methods to create efficient nano-fertilizers. In the chemical synthesis, ripe banana fruit rind extracts were utilized for nutrient extraction, and chitosan nanoparticles were employed as a matrix for nutrient encapsulation. The chitosan nanoparticles, synthesized via the ionic gelation method, served as carriers for nutrient delivery to crops. Analysis of the resulting nano-fertilizer unveiled a particle size of 296 nm, with nitrogen content reaching 3.51 wt% and potassium content at 4.47 wt%. On the other hand, the physical synthesis involved a planetary ball mill to reduce the size of chitosan and potassium carbonate extracted from banana peel ash. Particle size in this case was 5308 nm, with nitrogen content of 5.55 wt% and potassium content of 3.01 wt%. Comparing the two synthesis methods, the chemical approach demonstrated superiority, warranting its selection for plant growth trials. Intriguingly, the results indicated that growth rates of plants increased with reduced nano-fertilizer dosages, showcasing the potency of this novel fertilizer. This study underscores the significance of basic nanomaterials and hybrid nanocomposites, as well as the exclusive role of biochar techniques, in advancing agricultural practices. This work pioneers a crucial pathway for harnessing nanotechnology in agri-food systems, with far-reaching implications for both research and industrial practices.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords: Nanotechnology; Nitrogenous nano-fertilizer; Green synthesis; Sustainable agriculture; Planetary ball mill; Ionic gelation method

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03175-7


Chemical Papers 78 (3) 1481–1492 (2024)

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