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Assessing the efficacy of iron (II, III) oxide nanocomposite for the photodegradation of organic dye pollutants and textile wastewater under UV–visible irradiation

Mahnaz Parastar Gharehlar, Shabnam Sheshmani, Farrokh Roya Nikmaram, and Zohreh Doroudi

Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences, Yadegar-E-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



Received: 12 August 2023  Accepted: 15 November 2023


The existence of artificial dyes in water is a significant environmental concern, as it can lead to poor water quality. The use of photodegradation becomes an increasingly popular method for treating water. In this study, the photodegradation of Reactive Red 66, Reactive Red 120 dyes and textile wastewater was studied under UV and visible light. To enhance the photoresponse of the Iron (II, III) oxide, modifications were made to the graphene oxide. Iron (II, III) oxide and its nanocomposite photocatalysts were subject to characterization techniques; including FT-IR, Raman, XRD, DRS, zeta potential VSM, SEM, EDAX, and AFM. A series of experiments were conducted to optimize several parameters in the photodegradation process. Under optimal conditions, the removal efficiency of Reactive Red 66 and Reactive Red 120 dyes using Iron (II, III) oxide was found to be 94.8, and 88.5%, respectively. Also, removal percentage of these dyes using Iron (II, III) oxide/GO nanocomposite has been 95.2, and 91.3%. After three days of exposure to visible light, the removal percentage of Reactive Red 66 using Iron (II, III) oxide and Iron (II, III) oxide/GO was 85.7 and 92.1%, respectively. Similarly, the percentage of Reactive Red 120 removal using Iron (II, III) oxide and Iron (II, III) oxide/GO under visible light after three days were 81.9 and 85.0%, respectively. The dye removal efficiency was determined in textile wastewater by measuring BOD and COD. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the photocatalytic reactions followed the pseudo-second-order. Additionally, the reusability of the prepared photocatalyst was also evaluated.

Keywords: Iron (II, III) oxide nanoparticles; Graphene oxide matrix; Photodegradation; Organic dye pollutants; Textile wastewater

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-023-03223-2


Chemical Papers 78 (3) 2015–2032 (2024)

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