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Performances of NiFe2O4/TiO2 spinal photocatalyst prepared by planetary ball mill method for degradation of dye

Julie Minoo Pardiwala, Mitul Prajapati, and Manan Shah

Department of Chemical Engineering, S. S Agrawal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Navsari, India



Received: 5 April 2023  Accepted: 7 February 2024


In this work, we report a composite of NiFe2O4 with NiFe2O4/TiO2 prepared by a planetary ball mill for the reactive grinding method, where operating parameters of (sunwheel 200 rpm and jar 350 rpm) for 11 h were optimized. XRD, particle size by zeta sizer, VSM, UV-NIR spectrometer show that the catalyst has been successfully prepared, having improved photocatalytic performances. Moreover, the RB21 dye degradation with 240-min reaction time for COD and color removal with an optimized parameter of (catalyst dosage 0.8 g, pH7, the concentration of dye 50 mg/L, UV light source, room temperature, 500 mL sample) results prove the performance activity is challenging. Furthermore, the possible photocatalytic mechanism is briefly explained under UV light and natural sunlight from the band-gap analysis of electrons and sand holes. In addition, the kinetic study shows R2 = 0.9833 pseudo-first-order reaction. NiFe2O4 prepared was reused for four cycles with 80%, 75%, 75%, and 60% efficiency in COD removal and 100% color removal with 0.8 g, 0.7 g, 0.7 g, and 0.6 g catalyst recovery rates. Characterization results show that NiFe2O4 gives the best result with 85% COD removal, 100% color removal under UV photocatalytic reactor having a band gap of 1.8 Eg (eV), XRD 311 plane JCPDS 98-018-2237 pure NiFe2O4 catalyst formed with high magnetic property 22.22 emu/g for recovery from water for next cycle.

Keywords: Photocatalysis; Sunlight; UV-photocatalytic reactor; NiFe2O4; Reactive milling; Reactive turquoise blue dye

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-024-03362-0


Chemical Papers 78 (6) 3919–3938 (2024)

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