ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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Effects of water-induced aging on iron (oxyhydr)oxides nanoparticles: linking crystal structure, iron ion release, and toxicity

Artur Dzeranov, Lyubov Bondarenko, Daniel Saman, Mikhail Prokof'ev, Vera Terekhova, Lyudmila Telegina, Gulzhian Dzhardimalieva, Sofia Bolotskaya, and Kamila Kydralieva

Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow, Russia



Received: 6 November 2023  Accepted: 14 February 2024


The effects of aging of colloidal dispersions of iron (oxyhydr)oxides affect the stability of these materials under different environmental conditions, thereby affecting their reactivity and applicability in remediation. However, only a limited number of studies have focused on aging-induced changes in the phase composition, surface properties, and toxicological effects of nanoparticles (NPs). In this study, closely related and intermediate iron (oxyhydr)oxides (Fe3-δO4, γ-Fe2O3, 5Fe2O3∙9H2O, δ-FeOOH) were synthesized. The crystal structure, surface charge, and leaching of Fe ions of these materials were analyzed. All synthesized materials were then tested in bioassays with ciliates and higher plants at circumneutral pH, both upon preparation and after aqueous aging. Quantitative analysis of the X-ray diffraction data using the Rietveld method showed that the crystal structure of the magnetite NPs changed to γ-Fe2O3. The evaluation of biological activity in Sinapis alba (white mustard) showed that NPs of different compositions, stored at a maximum concentration of 10 g L−1, inhibited root growth by 50%. In the case of δ-FeOOH and Fe3O4, however, concentrations of 1 g L−1 caused only minor inhibition. The toxic effects of Fe-NPs, attributed to the release of Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions by oxidation, were found to be consistent with the redox behavior of NPs.

Keywords: (Oxyhydr)oxides nanoparticles; Oxidative aging; Crystal structure; Zeta potential; Released iron ions; Bioactivity

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-024-03373-x


Chemical Papers 78 (6) 4029–4043 (2024)

Monday, June 24, 2024

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