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Interfacial approach in CdS/chitosan based on reduced graphene oxide: co-doping, synergistic effects and enhancing dye degradation efficiency

Shabnam Sheshmani and Mahmoudreza Mirhabibi

Department of Chemistry, College of Basic Sciences, Yadegar-E-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran



Received: 24 November 2023  Accepted: 6 March 2024


The presence of artificial dyes in water poses a significant environmental concern due to their detrimental impact on water quality. As a result, photodegradation has gained popularity as an effective method for water treatment to remove these pollutants. Cadmium sulfide (CdS) is a semiconductor widely recognized for its exceptional optical properties, which make it highly suitable for optoelectronic devices. In addition, CdS possesses photocatalytic properties, allowing it to initiate chemical reactions when exposed to light. This study focuses on investigating CdS photocatalytic activity through surface modifications using chitosan (Ch) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) for the degradation of Acid Orange 7. The interfacing of chitosan into the CdS structure leads to significant improvements in its photocatalytic performance. The CdS/rGO composite exhibits outstanding photocatalytic efficiency (14.92%) compared to CdS/Ch/rGO (89.26%), primarily due to the synergistic effects of CdS and chitosan. This finding highlights the immense potential of chitosan as a highly effective modifier for enhancing photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the manuscript provides insights into the structural characterization, kinetic and isotherm studies of the CdS composites. The experimental results validate the successful interfacing of CdS nanoparticles with chitosan and reduced graphene oxide. By harnessing the beneficial impact of chitosan in the CdS semiconductor, this research paves the way for the developing more efficient solutions to mitigate environmental pollution and improve water quality. Kinetic studies demonstrated that the photocatalytic reactions followed the pseudo-second-order model.

Graphical abstract

Keywords: Cadmium sulfide; Chitosan; Reduced graphene oxide; Photodegradation; Acid Orange 7

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-024-03409-2


Chemical Papers 78 (7) 4455–4468 (2024)

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