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Characterisation of VOC composition of Slovak monofloral honeys by GC×GC-TOF-MS

Ivan Špánik, Antónia Janáčová, Zuzana Šusterová, Tibor Jakubík, Nikoleta Jánošková, Pavel Novák, and Robert Chlebo

Institute of Analytical Chemistry, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37, Bratislava, Slovakia



Abstract: Solid phase microextraction (SPME) followed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (GC×GC-TOF-MS) was used to characterise volatile organic compounds in honeys of different botanical origins. Rape, sunflower, acacia, lime, raspberry, and phacelia honeys from Slovakia were studied in detail. Up to 900 compounds were detected at the given S/N ratio of 200. The poorest VOC profiles were found for acacia and rape honeys while lime honey showed the richest VOC composition. Approximately 100 compounds were present in all honeys studied, independently of their botanical origin. They belong to various chemical classes (hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, terpenes, benzene derivatives, and compounds containing heteroatoms). The compounds found in only one type of honey were also successfully identified.

Keywords: comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – GC×GC – honey – volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-012-0254-z


Chemical Papers 67 (2) 127–134 (2013)

Tuesday, April 23, 2024

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