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Experimental investigation of bubble and drop formation at submerged orifices

Nicolas Dietrich, Nadia Mayoufi, Souhil Poncin, and Huai-Zhi Li

INSA, UPS, INP, LISBP, Université de Toulouse, 135 Avenue de Rangueil, F-31077, Toulouse, France



Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate bubble/drop formation at a single submerged orifice in stagnant Newtonian fluids and to gain qualitative understanding of the formation mechanism. The effects of various governing parameters were studied. Formation behavior of bubbles and drops in Newtonian aqueous solutions were investigated experimentally under different operating conditions with various orifices. The results show that the volume of the detached dispersed phase (bubble or drop) increases with the viscosity of the continuous phase (or dispersion medium), surface tension, orifice diameter, and dispersed phase flow rate. A PIV system was employed to measure the velocity flow field quantitatively during the bubble/drop formation, giving interesting information useful for the elucidation of the fundamental formation process at the orifice. It was revealed that the orifice shape strongly influences the size of the bubble formed. Furthermore, based on a simple mass balance, a general correlation successfully predicting both bubble and drop sizes has been proposed.

Keywords: bubble – drop – formation – PIV measurements

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-012-0277-5


Chemical Papers 67 (3) 313–325 (2013)

Wednesday, August 17, 2022

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