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Influence of ethanol on the chain-ordering of carbonised polyaniline

Zuzana Morávková, Miroslava Trchová, Elena Tomšík, and Jaroslav Stejskal

Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovský Sq. 2, 162 06, Prague 6, Czech Republic



Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) was prepared by the oxidation of aniline hydrochloride with ammonium peroxydisulphate in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. In the presence of ethanol, PANI nanotubes and nanorods were observed. Both products were carbonised in a nitrogen atmosphere at 650°C. Initial and carbonised products were characterised by scanning and transmission electron microscopies, thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray scattering. Their molecular structure was studied by UV-VIS, infrared, and Raman spectroscopies. Carbonised sample obtained from the PANI salt prepared in the presence of ethanol exhibits Raman spectrum which corresponds to a more ordered carbon-like material than carbonised samples obtained from the PANI base and the PANI salt prepared in pure water. The influence of ethanol present in the reaction mixture on the molecular and supra-molecular structure of PANI and, consequently, on the enhancement of chainordering of carbonised PANI is discussed.

Keywords: polyaniline – carbonisation – carbon-like material – Raman spectroscopy – infrared spectroscopy

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-013-0329-5


Chemical Papers 67 (8) 919–932 (2013)

Tuesday, June 18, 2024

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