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Clay and charcoal composites: characterisation and application of factorial design analysis for dye adsorption

Neucineia Vieira Chagas, Sueli Pércio Quinaia, Fauze Jacó Anaissi, Jeferson Meira Santos, Maria Lurdes Felsner, and Karin Cristiane Justi

Department of Chemistry, Campus Cedeteg, Universidade Estadual do Centro-Oeste, 85040-080, Guarapuava, Brazil



Abstract: The characterisation of smectite clay, charcoal and prepared clay-charcoal composites was carried out through the X-ray diffractometry, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), simultaneous thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis revealed the composites to have different characteristics from the precursor clay and charcoal, and a peak displacement (d 001) was observed through the X-ray diffraction; this suggests the incorporation of charcoal into the clay lamellas and the formation of a new phase. Tests of adsorption with methylene blue dye were also carried out to evaluate the percentage of dye removal by the adsorbent, in which the composites presented better results than charcoal, indicating great potential for industrial use. A 23 factorial design was employed to evaluate the influence of temperature, ionic strength and pH on the adsorption of methylene blue using the AV50 composite that presented the best adsorption efficiency.

Keywords: methylene blue dye – adsorption – composites – smectite clay – charcoal

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-013-0472-z


Chemical Papers 68 (4) 553–563 (2014)

Tuesday, May 28, 2024

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