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Natural organic acids promoted Beckmann rearrangement: Green and expeditious synthesis of amides under solvent-free conditions

Sandeep Vasantrao Rohokale, Santosh Rajaram Kote, Santosh Rangnath Deshmukh, and Shankar Ramchandra Thopate

Department of Chemistry, Ahmednagar College, Dr. John Barnabas Post Graduate School for Biological Studies, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, 414001, India



Abstract: Naturally occurring organic acids are reported to be highly efficient promoters of the Beckmann rearrangement. Citric, oxalic, tartaric, malic, succinic, malonic, and fumaric acids efficiently promote the Beckmann rearrangement under solvent-free conditions and thermal and microwave irradiation. Tartaric acid was found to be the best promoter of the Beckmann rearrangement under conventional conditions as well as under microwave irradiation. Compared with conventional heating, microwave irradiation provides higher reaction rate and slightly higher yields.

Keywords: amides – Beckmann rearrangement – natural organic acids – oximes – solvent-free

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.2478/s11696-013-0481-y


Chemical Papers 68 (4) 575–578 (2014)

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