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ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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Effect of grinding method on the analysis of essential oil from Baccharis articulata (Lam.) Pers.

Bruna Tischer, Raquel G. Vendruscolo, Roger Wagner, Cristiano R. Menezes, Cláudia S. Barin, Sandro R. Giacomelli, Jane M. Budel, and Juliano S. Barin

Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciência dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Brazil



Abstract: Grinding methods were evaluated aiming to determine yield and composition of essential oils (EOs) from Baccharis articulata (Lam) Pers., called as carqueja, a native plant from South Brazil. Cryogenic, knife (with and without cooling) and ball mills were used. The major constituents found in EOs were β-pinene, caryophyllene, spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide, but differences in 21 compounds were observed. All grinding processes reduced monoterpenes and oxygenated sesquiterpenes with concentration of hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. The sesquiterpenes (hydrocarbons and oxygenated) were found from 63.55 to 86.02% while the monoterpene hydrocarbons’ concentration ranged from 13.98 to 36.45%. Plants milled with knife mill provided EOs with profile similar to those not grinded. Despite the lower working temperature, cryogenic milling resulted in smaller EO yield (0.40 ± 0.03%) in comparison to other grinding methods (yields from 0.50 ± 0.02 to 0.56 ± 0.03%) and different chromatographic profile. Microscopic analysis showed the smaller particle size provided by cryogenic grinding, which leads to glandular trichome rupture and consequently to loss of EOs. This study showed that grinding should be carefully evaluated to provide reproducible results in essential oil analysis.

Keywords: Sample preparation; Volatile oil; Terpenes; Milling; Particle size

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-016-0052-0


Chemical Papers 71 (4) 753–761 (2017)

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