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Determination of polyphenol component fractions and integral antioxidant capacity of Syrian aniseed and fennel seed extracts using GC–MS, HPLC analysis, and photochemiluminescence assay

Adnan Odeh and Abdul W. Allaf

Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, Damascus, Syria



Abstract: The chemical components of both Syrian aniseed and fennel seeds collected from Idlib and Aleppo regions were identified using GC/MS spectrometry. Thirty-four component fractions representing an average of 98.5% of anise seed extract were characterized. The major average components were (E)-Anethole, Estragole, Limonene, Fenchone, Linalool, para-Anisaldehyde, (Z)-Anethole, and methyl chavicol. Also, thirty-one component fractions representing an average of 99.46% of fennel seed extract were identified. The major components were α-Pinene, α-Phellandrene, Fenchone, Methyl chavicol, Estragole, (Z)-Anethole, Limonene, 1,8-Cineole, Anisole-p-allyl, E,E-Farnesene, Estragole, (E)-Anethole, Anisaldehyde, and Carvacrol. The extract of aniseed was characterized by higher amounts of trans-anethole (52.2%) than fennel extract (38.3%). The integral antioxidant capacity (IAC) of two different extracts from both aniseed and fennel seeds have been determined using photochemiluminescence assay (PCL). The sum of antioxidant capacity (IAC) of hydrophilic and hydrophobic components in both aniseed and fennel seeds was determined, as a total equivalent per gram of dry material (nmolTE/gDM) at 166.69 ± 0.42 and 363.28 ± 1.11 nmol for hydrophilic and hydrophobic components, respectively. Eight major phenolic compounds known as possible antioxidant sources with their concentrations have been identified in both aniseed and fennel seeds by HPLC and GC–MS analysis.

Keywords: Aniseed; Antioxidant capacity; Fennel; Photochemiluminescence

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-017-0169-9


Chemical Papers 71 (9) 1731–1737 (2017)

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