ISSN print edition: 0366-6352
ISSN electronic edition: 1336-9075
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Multivariate optimization of the hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction of lead in human blood and urine samples using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

Samaneh Salari, Abdulrahman Bahrami, Farhad Ghamari, and Farshid Ghorbani Shahna

Hamedan University of Medical Sciences, Hamedan, Iran



Abstract: The present study developed a liquid-phase microextraction based on hollow fiber coupled with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the effective extraction and quantitation of lead from urine and blood samples. A multivariate design was used for the optimization of the experimental conditions to ensure high extraction efficiency. Six factors (solvent type, chelating agent, time extraction, temperature, donor phase pH, and acceptor phase pH) were obtained by screening eleven factors of the Plackett–Burman design; these were optimized using the central composite design of response surface methodology. The optimum conditions of donor phase pH, acceptor phase pH, temperature, and extraction time were 5, 9.5, 40 °C, and 120 min, respectively. In addition, oleic acid containing dicyclohexyl-18-krone-6 was used for the membrane phase. Under optimal conditions, the enrichment factor, limit of detection, and limit of quantification were obtained in the ranges of 21.3–18.7, 0.001–0.002 ng mL−1, and 0.008–0.01 ng mL−1, respectively, in urine and blood samples. The linearity of the calibration curve was established for the concentration of Pb in the range of 1–50 ng mL−1 (r2 = 0.9983). Finally, the performance of the developed method was evaluated for the determination of lead in urine and blood samples, and satisfactory results were obtained (RSDs < 10% with recovery > 95).

Keywords: Lead ; Hollow fiber ; Urine ; Blood ; GFAAS ; Microextraction 

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-018-0435-5


Chemical Papers 72 (8) 1945–1952 (2018)

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