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Biodegradable and biocompatible agarose–poly (vinyl alcohol) hydrogel for the in vitro investigation of ibuprofen release

Pranjali Date, Archana Tanwar, Priyanka Ladage, Kisan M. Kodam, and Divya Ottoor

Department of Chemistry, Savitribai Phule Pune University, Pune, India



Received: 17 October 2019  Accepted: 26 December 2019


Biodegradable and biocompatible interpenetrating hydrogels consisting of agarose and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) were synthesized using N,N′-methylene bisacrylamide as the cross-linker. Different hydrogels of agarose were prepared with varying concentration of PVA, cross-linker, and initiator ammonium persulfate. The concentration of each of the component was optimized on the basis of their nature of swelling. Surface morphology of the prepared hydrogel was examined by FESEM analysis and structural changes were confirmed by FTIR, XRD and TGA/DSC technique. Prepared hydrogels showed excellent swelling and pH-dependent drug release. Ibuprofen was used as a model drug to investigate the release behavior from hydrogels. Pre-synthesized IBU and β-cyclodextrin (1:1) inclusion complex was loaded directly into the hydrogel and its release study was performed in different pH solutions. The release data were fitted using various kinetic models such as zero-order, first-order, Higuchi model and Korsemeyer–Peppas model and examined the release mechanism. The biodegradation and cytotoxicity assay studies confirmed the degradable and non-toxic nature of modified hydrogel.

Graphic Abstract:

Keywords: Hydrogel; Cross-linking; Inclusion complex; Agarose and controlled drug delivery

Full paper is available at

DOI: 10.1007/s11696-019-01046-8


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